To me the information that lead into why the Maquis in Star Trek came about was scattered and more complicated then I previously thought. What follows is my attempt to pull all the factors together that lead to the Maquis coming to be. I have tried to be complete and balanced in my approach. If I have missed anything or if you notice an error in grammar or reasoning please feel free to let me know. I am working on a wiki suitable version for those who can not read PDF.-Christina Doane
PDF: | The Rise Of the Maquis: The Hows And Whys Of The Formation Of The Maquis In The Alpha Quadrant
The Origins Of the Maquis: The Hows And Whys Of The Formation Of The Maquis In The Alpha Quadrant By: Christina R. Doane For: Maquis Forces International and MFI Academy only. July 8, 2011 Edited and/or reviewed by: Bvt. Rear Admiral Frank Parker(MFI), Admiral Laura Hartwell(MFI), MGen Marc Easterly(MFI), Captain Brian Pickett(MFI), Commander Brian Mullins (MFI). Doane 1 “Unhappy with a new treaty, Federation Colonists along the Cardassian Border have banded together. Calling themselves “The Maquis”, they continue to fight the Cardassians. Some consider them heroes, but to the governments of the Federation and Cardassia, they are outlaws.”(Kolbe, 1995). Who the Maquis are, as the above quote demonstrates, is very clear. Federation Colonists, who upon being told that their homes of decades that they had sweated over where now a part of the Cardassian Union and that they had to go, said 'no', though it is the feelings of the author that much more colorful language was most likely used in many cases. The 'why' of the Maquis, now that is the complicated part of this story, for if certain circumstances were otherwise the conflict that would ensue between The Maquis, The Cardassian Union, and the United Federation Of Planets may of never happened. Alas it was not to be, for there were certain primary factors that played an integral role in the creation of the Maquis as a force, outlaw or otherwise. It will be the purpose of this document to examine the factors those factors to include relevant elements of the Federation/Cardassian war, the treaty that ended it, information on the United Federation of Planets and Cardassian Union as it is connected to the formation of the Maquis. It was once said by a citizen of Earth in regards to a conflict on his own soil, “These are the times that try men's souls.”(Paine, 1776). The war between the Federation and Cardassian Union was no walk in the park as these two great space super powers went back and forth over what was essentially the same patch of space. The Federation also had settlers roving far and wide forming colonies as the Cardassian Union attempted to continue its unchecked expansion, regardless of what was considered previously owned. The war started in 2347 and primary combat operations ended in 2350 though, “Smaller skirmishes, not officially considered part of the wars, continued into the 2360s...”(Memory Alpha, Federation-Cardassian War, 2011). So evenly matched were they that even after over a decade of conflict, neither side had gained a significant advantage. It was akin to two 20th century prize fighters going toe to toe, only at the end to be bloodied and tired but having tied in points. Doane 2 In 2367 there was finally a lasting cease fire but it wasn't until 2370 that the treaty to formalize an end to the conflict would be ratified(Memory Alpha, Federation-Cardassian War, 2011). It was not a perfect document, “ This agreement is far from perfect, neither side got everything they wanted but everyone got something...”(Allen 1994). By this point both sides were so war weary they just wanted it over with, they had other concerns that did not involve continuing to throw away lives and resources if a little reasonable give and take would end it all. Now is important to mention here just how much the Federation wanted to end the conflict and wanted to avoid a repeat performance of the long and bloody war. So much so that in the events of that at one point Captain Picard had to hunt down a rogue Federation ship in the events of TNG: The Wounded. This ship had been attacking Cardassian targets and Cpt. Picard's orders were simple, “...The Federation is not prepared for another sustained conflict. You must preserve the peace, no matter what the cost.”(Chalmers 1991). This helps explain why the Federation accepted the concessions it did in giving up some of its territory in the aforementioned treaty. The treaty it self boils down to a few significant points, the first was it established an agreed upon border between the Federation and Cardassian Union. One of the connecting points to The Maquis is the fact the treaty has established, “...a demilitarized zone along the border, neither side will be permitted to place military outposts, conduct fleet exercises or station warships anywhere in the demilitarized area...”(Allen 1994). This affects the Maquis because in the process of establishing this border, “...several Federation colonies [are now in] Cardassian Territory and some Cardassian colonies.. [ are now in Federation Territory]”(Allen 1994). It is these displaced Federation Citizens that will eventually form the core the future Maquis. Doane 3 Even now there was a window of opportunity for the Federation and Cardassia to handle this change over in a way that lessen conflict. Though the Federations agreement to the treaty opened the door, so to speak, it was the Cardassians that really exacerbated the situation. The Federation, for example, did consult local leaders of the affected colonies. An example of this was in the case of Dorvan 5 where a group of Earth North American Native Indians had made home 20 years before. As Admiral Nechayev had said in the events of TNG: Journey's End, “ An Indian representative was included in the deliberations of the Federation Council. His objections were noted discussed, and ultimately rejected.”(Allen 1994). As has been touched on before though the Federation had more on its mind during the deliberations of this peace process that the viewpoints of the colonists. Ultimately they felt the peace was worth it, the colonists disagreed. It is the events of Dorvan 5 that resonate throughout the other colonies, as these were the first to deny that, “Those finding themselves on the wrong side of the border will have to be moved.”(Allen 1994). In short they simply did not wish to be moved. Already the Federation view has been explained along of the the lines of that old saying about the greater good. For the colonists their view was more focused, as has been mentioned briefly the colonists had been living on these planets in some cases, “...for decades..”(Allen 1994). And there was an especially delicate connotations to the Federations relocation program when it came to Dorvan 5. As the colonists there were, “ Once more ...being asked to leave their homes because of a political decision by a distant government.”(Allen 1994). A group Earth Native Americans found a new home one where they would not be moved because of treaties by representatives beyond themselves or other external factors. Those who know Earth North American history during the 1800's will be familiar with this frequent relocation in their history. It is easy to wonder why they simply didn't just move again, it is just land after all and not worth dying for some would say. Though the background of the colonists may argue that statement, as the Doane 4 Federation was influenced in no small part because of Earth history. Earth being such a central member of the Federation and all. Also many colonists were from Earth who would be familiar with the long and varied history of fighting over pieces of land. For example during the 1940's on Earth the Nation State of Poland was invaded by the Nation State of Germany and while previous German land grabs had been seen as legitimate, this could be not be ignored. It caused other Nation States to leap to Poland's defense. A full analysis of that situation and of the countless overs over the centuries would take up more space then will exist in this paper. Sufficient to say that this is an example of not willingly giving ground and leave it at that for now. Another example is the Revolutionary War of the Earth Nation State of the United States, when they wished to be free they declared it so and fought for their land. Other planets fought for what they considered their homelands as well. For example, the occupation of Bajor by Cardassian Forces for about 60 years is something to consider, rather then try to make a home elsewhere Bajorans fought for their planet, so the stubborn viewpoints of the colonists themselves were not entirely without precedent. The Federation itself could be reluctant to cede territory as the Federation/Cardassian War illustrated. It is important to pause here to reflect on the ideals and background of the United Federation of Planets. It allows for more insight into the views of the colonists as well as a more detailed framework by which to gauge their actions. The United Federation of Planets, sometimes merely called the Federation, is: “...an interstellar federal republic, composed of planetary governments that agreed to exist semi- autonomously under a single central government based on the principles of universal liberty, rights, and equality, and to share their knowledge and resources in peaceful cooperation and space exploration. One of the most powerful interstellar states in known space, it encompassed 8,000 light years and over 150 member worlds.”(UFP 2011) As one can see, these colonist come from a background of respect for others, peaceful cooperation, and the like. On average, from such a background it would be reasonable to believe that the fact these Doane 5 citizens would not be likely aggressors in a conflict. While there are exceptions to every rule, this is not an unreasonable premise considering the background. Then there is the basic personality of those who tend to volunteer as colonists in the first place. In the events of TNG: Silicon Avatar Commander Riker of the USS Enterprise was talking to the leader of a Federation colony in its initial stages wherein he made a comment, “Aren't all you pioneers, all adventures at heart...” (Bole 1991) to which her reply was, “But we also have this nesting instinct. It's exciting to find a new world but the joy comes in making it a home. Building houses, having children...” (Bole 1991). These are free spirits who look forward to the challenge of discovering a new world, putting their own sweat and time into making that new world a home. And its a common view among some sentients that, the more effort one puts into something the more it means to them. And the Federation had much that mattered to them. With over 150 member worlds it would be difficult to make sure everyone had everything they wanted at all times. When the Federation made its treaty with Cardassia it was thinking of those 150 member worlds not just the colonists in the conflicted zone, right or wrong it was trying to do its best by a majority of its citizens. In this case it happened to put the homes of the colonists of the conflicted zone on the proverbial chopping block. That is a main difference between the Federation and the Cardassian Union, the Federation makes an attempt to see to its citizens well being. The Cardassians have no such focus. The Cardassians are an ancient people who “were..once..a peaceful people with a rich spiritual life.”(Landau 1992). However that changed as their ancient society fell and a new one was put in its place. The overall Cardassian society at the time of the Maquis rise was: “...a militaristic philosophy...Cardassians relied heavily on the military's expansion into the galaxy to obtain the natural resources which were scarce on their homeworld. The military colonized numerous worlds to obtain the resources for their population and in return had almost complete power over the people.” (Cardassian Union History 2011). Doane 6 So not a society dedicated to peace and equality, its no wonder they conflicted with not only the Federation Government but the citizens themselves. It is sometimes said that citizens reflect their government or vice versa, this would appear to hold some merit in this case. The Federation and Cardassian Union were at war for over a decade, so the fact that Cardassian representatives clashed with stubborn former Federation colonists who had refused to move is not surprising. Their very mindsets were diametrically opposed. This cultural need for military expansion by the Cardassians flavored everything they did, including their relations with the DMZ and the colonists there. Even before the Maquis came on the scene or even before the movement of colonists was going to be warranted, the Cardassians were trying to get away with war like actions toward the Federation and her environs after the treaty signing. In the events of TNG's Chain of Comnand, the area of Federation space that included Minos Korva was under investigation by the Cardassians as a possible invasion point for them. Being disputed and so close to the Cardassian border, 4 light years (Scheerer 1992), they deemed it perfect. So to gain more information on the Federations ability to defend it they, “[went]...to great lengths to lure...[Captain Picard in position to be captured]...because...in the event of invasion the Enterprise will the be command ship for the sector encompassing Minos Korva.”(Landau 1992). Another example of Cardassian militaristic ambitions and duplicity can be seen in the events of TNG: The Wounded. At the end of the search for the rouge ship Captain Picard tells the leader of the Cardassian delegation that he believes the rogue Federation Captain Maxwell was correct about Cardassian activities in the area, include about some Cardassian vessels the Enterprise had prevented the rogue Federation ship Captain Maxwell command, the USS Phoenix, from destroying: Doane 7 “[Picard] One more thing Gul Macet, Maxwell was right. Those ships were not carrying scientific equipment were they? A research station within arms reach of 3 Federation Sectors. Cargo ships running with high energy subspace fields that jam sensors. [Macet] If you believe the transport ship was carrying weapons captain, why didn't you board it as maxwell instructed. [Picard] I'm here to protect the Peace. The peace I feel is in the best interest of both our peoples. If I had attempted to board that I am sure you and I would not be having this pleasant conversation. And ships on both sides would be arming for war.”(Chalmers 1991). These are but two examples there are many more, in the events of TNG: Below Decks the Federation Starship Enterprise is involved in getting a spy back into Cardassian space to keep an eye on the Cardassians because the Federation did not trust them. These and other examples illustrate that the Cardassians did not negotiate the Federation/Cardassian Treaty in good faith. In fact that they intended, at the first opportunity, to invade more territory. And indicates they had no intentions of abiding by the terms of the aforementioned treaty anymore then they had too. This includes items like no military in the DMZ as well. However they could of still worked with the Federation colonists peacefully who refused to leave but working with people has not been a strong suit of the Cardassian mindset. This is point is well illustrated by the Cardassians treatment of those colonists who refused to leave. This document will continue with the example of the colonists at Dorvan 5 as they were the first to be moved for the change. These colonists proved the old adage that working for something can give it greater value, for when Captain Picard tried to offer them other planets very like the one they were on he was told these colonists had searched for the right planet for “...200 years...[and that]...This planet holds a deep spiritual significance for us..”(Allen 1994). It was this reason that Anthwara, the leader of the colony, found impossible to negotiate. And his people agreed with him. So while Picard was under delicate negotiations in the hopes he wouldn't have to force them to leave, a Cardassian survey team shows up with not subtly. They didn't understand why the colonists were still there and they didn't make any effort to make it less awkward, it was a bit like having ones home foreclosed and the new owners showing up to look around while the current owners are sitting down to dinner. Doane 8 They continued with their heavy handed tactics. Picard had ultimately decided to force beam them up but this plan was foiled by the sentiments of one of his officers who felt the order was wrong. Before Picard could come up with a new plan the colonists took two Cardassians prisoner and their commanding officer was ready to storm the place, he considered the colonists, “[an] unruly crowd... [and for his forces to] prepare to send an armed squad of troopers to rescue them and occupy the village.” (Allen 1994). Only Picards negotiating skills prevented immediate bloodshed but that they would no longer be considered Federation citizens and that, “...you're on your own and under Cardassian jurisdiction.”(Allen 1994). The Bajorans can attest to how well that can work out. So as has been shown the Cardassians could not be trusted to adhere to an agreement nor do they seem to have the culturally sensitivity to work peacefully with other peoples and cultures. Even their survey team, arguably more scientific than militaristic did not show the open mindedness more common to scientists and technicians of other cultures. At multiple junctures they showed themselves at this time to have but one goal and that is to control as much of the galaxy's resources as possible. If they had worked peacefully with the Federation colonists who wanted to stay then its very possible that the future conflicts could have been avoided but they had shown themselves not to be the types to do anything of the sort. And Dorvan 5 was but the first of many: “...many civilian colonists on both sides of the border objected to the transfer of control and secretly armed themselves, violating the peace terms that established the DMZ. The Cardassian Central Command began secretly shipping weapons to their colonists in the DMZ so as to oust the Federation colonists, using neutral species such as the Xepolites as intermediaries. In response, the Federation colonists banded together and called themselves the Maquis, dedicated to freeing themselves from Cardassian control. Although the Maquis gained no official support from the Federation, many in the Federation (including Starfleet) were sympathetic to their cause and covertly provided aid.”(DMZ 2011). Doane 9 Some believe that the name Maquis was another indication of the overwhelming influence of Earth history as the original Maquis were from the Earth Nation State of France that secretly fought the occupying forces of the Earth Nation State of Germany during the 1940's. Regardless, as final example there was the situation in regards to an undercover mission by Lt. Ro Loren of the USS Enterprise in the records labeled, TNG: Preemptive Strike. Admiral Nechayev had once again shown up to give orders in relation to the DMZ, in a conversation between herself and Captain Picard of the USS Enterprise: “[Nechayev] [Gul] Evec manages to make the Cardassians sound like helpless sheep being preyed on by Federation wolves. The truth is we caught the Cardassian government in the Demilitarized Zone supplying its colonies in the Demilitarized Zone with weapons. [Picard seriously] Gul Evec had assured me they had stopped that practice...[Nechayev sarcasticly] oh how comforting..” (Stuart 1994) But the Federation was still interested in keeping the peace, Admiral Nechayev continues in the same conversation showing some sympathy even as she is concerned over the developments: “Believe me Captain if I were living that close to the Cardassians I'd keep a phaser under my pillow too...But in the last weeks we've seen signs that they've moved beyond self-defense. Their ranks are growing...they are acquiring ships, weapons. They seem to be preparing for a more aggressive military posture. We've got to put a stop to them before the entire Demilitarized Zone ignites.” (Stuart 1994) It is difficult to see how those remaining in Cardassian areas could do otherwise. It is obvious the Cardassians have no desire for peace and in fact it is reported that, “A trader from Pende 2 said he could verify that the Cardassians are going to start supplying their colonists with biogenic weapons.”(Stuart 1994). It appears not only were the Cardassians not going to do anything effective at stopping their colonies from acting out on the Federation citizens but were actively supporting them and planning on ramping up their efforts. Doane 10 Macias was a fairly mild older man and the leader of the Maquis cell that was involved in the undercover mission mentioned as well as the first known Maquis leader killed by Cardassian forces. Below he mentions one of the reasons why he joined the Maquis: “I was on Juhraya when the treaty was signed, the colony suddenly found itself in Cardassian territory, Some of us choose to stay. Take our chances. Then one night I was dragged from my bed and beaten. The authorities clucked their tongues and agreed it was an unfortunate incident and did nothing.”(Stuart 1994) As one can see it is yet another example of the tacit if not outright approval of the Cardassian government on any action likely to end Federation, or former Federation, citizens presence in the DMZ. By any means necessary. Macias, from visual records, was shot in the back by a Cardassian deliberately aiming for him. It is unknown if they knew who he was. However, during that raid on Macias village where his cell took refuge he was shot trying to help someone injured. He wasn't even armed at the time. When one takes into account all the factors, it becomes clear that considering the background of the colonists, their reactions, the Federation and the Cardassians treatment of the Federation Colonists that it becomes a case of not so much as if there will be a conflict but when. It is the classic rock verses hard place situation. Everyone mentioned contributed the current climate. The Federation, eager to avoid another war that would cost thousands if not millions of lives, forgave much even as they watched for gross violations by the Cardassians in order to hem them in through other means. The Colonists, who by their very personalities and backgrounds, did not want to give up the rights and lands they worked to hard toward. Who then decided that the best defense was a good offense. The Cardassians whose fear and conviction that others were out to get them, made it so. Their need to control everything ending any hope at a peaceful resolution for the situation in the DMZ. Doane 11 It is amazing how one decision can roll into another as its effects ripple out in unforeseen ways. It took many persons and decisions that brought Maquis about and it is the hope of the author that this document has aided in the understanding of just how that was possible, for not only by understanding the examples of the past can we hope to avoid repeating its errors and to know of ones history is no small thing. After all, part of a peoples is not just their future but their past and what they do with it.
- Reference Page:
- Allen, Corey. TNG: Journey's End. Aired: 28 March 1994. Retrieved July 6, 2011. Beaumont, Gabrielle. TNG: Lower Decks. Aired: 7 February 1994.
- Bole, Cliff. TNG: Silicon Avatar. 21 October 1991.
- Cardassian Union. Memory Alpha. Cardassian Union (2011). Retrieved July 6, 2011 http://memory-alpha.org/wiki/Cardassian_Union
- Cardassian Union History. Memory Alpha. CUH (2011). Retrieved July 6, 2011. http://memory-alpha.org/wiki/Cardassian_history#Cardassian_Union
- Chalmers, Chip. TNG: The Wounded. Aired: 28 January 1991. Retrieved July 6, 2011. DMZ. Memory Alpha. DMZ (2011). Retrieved July 6, 2011 http://memory-alpha.org/wiki/DMZ
- Federation-Cardassian War. Memory Alpha. F-C War (2011). Retrieved July 6, 2011 http://memory-alpha.org/wiki/Federation-Cardassian_War
- Kolbe, Winrich . VOY: Caretaker. Aired: 16 January 1995 . Retrieved July 6, 2011. Landau, Les and Scheerer, Robert. TNG: Chain of Command. Aired: 14 and 21st of December 1992.
- Paine, Thomas. The Crisis. Document (1776). Retrieved July 6, 2011. http://www.ushistory.org/Paine/crisis/c-01.htm
- Stuart, Patrick. TNG: Preemptive Strike. Aired: May 16th, 1994. United Federation of Planets. Memory Alpha. UFP. (2011). Retrieved July 6, 2011. http://memory-alpha.org/wiki/United_Federation_of_Planets